Cannabidiol (CBD), a compound produced by the cannabis plant, is quickly growing in popularity and looks to be destined for mainstream acceptance. CBD oil is finding its way into a variety of products, from tinctures and drops to CBD-infused edibles and CBD balms, as well as a wide range of cosmetics. CBD oil is even becoming popular among pet owners who wish to help their pets live longer, healthier lives.

Before we continue, we’d like to make an important distinction right up front to avoid potential confusion. We’ll go into this in more detail in the next chapter, but it’s important to note that hemp oil and CBD oil are not the same product. Hemp oil is the oil extracted from hemp seeds, and is generally used for cooking and as a dietary supplement. Hemp oil does not contain any CBD or other cannabinoids. CBD oil, on the other hand, is made by extracting the essential oils from the plant’s flower clusters and contains cannabinoids, terpenes, and other active compounds.

ILLUSTRATION: Seeds at the base of a salad dressing bottle reading “hemp oil” maybe with the red circle and line through it, and then buds at the base of a dropper bottle reading “CBD oil.”

With that clarified, let’s delve into The Ultimate Guide To CBD Oil.

A Short History of CBD Oil

The history of CBD oil is quite interesting. It actually has a long and storied past. However, as little as a quarter of a century ago, no one had ever heard of CBD. Today, modern science has identified a family of molecules known as cannabinoids as well as the human endocannabinoid system. We’re just beginning to understand how CBD affects the human body.

The History of CBD Oil In Prehistoric Times

Although cannabinoids were a complete unknown until their discovery in 1968, the use of cannabis by humans stretches as far back as the time when the very first hominid species began to populate the planet.

The late Carl Sagan was a prominent advocate for hemp. He once hypothesized that hemp was the very first crop to be cultivated by humankind.

There are numerous reasons why Carl Sagan might have been right about this. Hemp is one of the easiest crops to cultivate. It requires less water than most plants and can therefore be farmed without irrigation. Hemp also has natural defenses against pests. And hemp’s bountiful seeds attract small mammals and birds that supply the plant with fertilizer and disperse the seeds.

There is archeological evidence that hemp seeds were being gathered by the human race for food and fiber for hundreds of thousands of years. Every part of the hemp plant was valuable to early humans. Nothing was wasted. What was not used for food or fiber was used to fuel campfires.

The earliest hominids probably didn’t think much about the nutritional value of the plant. To them it was just a source of food and fiber. But as the human race evolved and with the power of reasoning, it became apparent that this plant provided a number of health benefits.

Although they had no concept of such things, consuming hemp leaves and flowers provided early humans with an entourage of bioactive compounds such as cannabinoids. Cannabis also produces relatively high levels or terpenes and flavonoids which enhance the properties of cannabinoids such as CBD and also provide antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of their own.

The History of CBD Oil In Ancient Times

The earliest written record of the use of cannabis appears in ancient China around 6000 BC, shortly after human civilization arose, but the most direct evidence of the use of cannabis as medicine began to appear around 2700 BC.

In 2737 BC, as recorded in the first editions of the Pen Ts’ao Ching, Chinese emperor Shen-Nung was using cannabis in topical ointments and teas to aid in pain relief.

As time went on and human civilization progressed, writings espousing the medicinal benefits of hemp begin to appear in pharmacopoeias across Asia.

The use of cannabis extracts as a blood thinner and anaesthetic first appeared in the second century BC in the writing of Hua Tuo.

Around 77 AD, the Romans began using hemp extensively in the healing arts. In his writings, a scholar by the name of Pliny the Elder claimed that cannabis extract was helpful for pain relief.

Another scientist of the time named Dioscorides authored a pharmacopeia which was highly respected in its time. In particular, Dioscorides listed ear pain and digestive issues as ailments which responded to treatment with cannabis extracts. He also touted cannabis extract as an effective treatment for healing burns.

A Greek physician named Aelius Galenus, who is simply referred to today as Galen, was arguably the most famous of all medical researchers of antiquity. Galen’s work was influential all over the known world. In the third century AD, Galen documented the use of cannabis extract as a pain reliever, anti-inflammatory, anti-emetic, anti-epileptic, diuretic, and more.

In India, cannabis was considered a sacred plant gifted by the gods. The Atharvaveda was considered a storehouse of knowledge that was useful for everyday life. This manuscript details the use of flowers and seeds in a variety of balms and tinctures.

Cannabis has even been found buried in the tombs of Ancient Greeks and Egyptians who also notated formulations for cannabis remedies.

The History of CBD Oil In The West

By the sixteenth century, cannabis was being cultivated all over Europe. Hemp was so valuable to society at that time that, in 1533, Henry VIII required all farmers to grow hemp.

Many physicians of the age such as Garcia de Orta and Li Shih-Chen were documenting the use of hemp extract as an appetite stimulant and antibiotic.

In the 1600’s, hemp cultivation came to North America where it was cultivated by the English colonies. The colony of Virginia even created laws which mandated the cultivation of hemp by farmers. Similar laws were passed in Massachusetts and Connecticut. Hemp seeds were even considered legal tender and used to pay for goods and services in Virginia, Pennsylvania, and Maryland.

A popular medical text of the time called, “Anatomy of Melancholy,” written by Robert Burton, noted that hemp extract was effective for the treatment of mental health disorders.

By the eighteenth century, hemp’s medicinal uses were documented in “The New England Dispensatory” and “Edinburgh New Dispensatory”—two highly respected pharmacopoeias of the day.

As the industrial age was unfolding, a surgeon named W.B. O’Shaughnessy began to extol the virtues of hemp remedies in the American Southwest. A professor at the Medical College of Calcutta O’Shaughnessy conducted experiments to determine the effects of hemp extracts on animals and humans suffering from rheumatic diseases, cholera, tetanus, and hydrophobia. His writings discussed the ability of hemp extracts to relieve pain and relax spastic muscles.

Hemp extract is also listed in the third edition of the U.S. Pharmacopeia as a pain reliever, sleep aid, and antidepressant, as well as a treatment for epileptic seizures. And near the end of the 1800’s century, a doctor named J.R. Reynolds was conducting research into the ability of hemp extract to reduce tics and treat asthma.

The History of CBD Oil In Modern Times

In the early 20th century, medicines such as opioids began to be developed. The use of cannabis-based preparations to relieve pain began to decline. However, many medications were developed which combined cannabis combined with other pharmaceuticals in everything from cough syrup to sleep aids.

By the late 1930’s, the war on cannabis erupted, and the cultivation of cannabis became illegal. Again in 1970, cannabis cultivation was banned by the Controlled Substances Act which listed cannabis — including both hemp and marijuana — as Schedule I substances with no medicinal benefits and a high risk of dependence.

In the late 1960’s the mysteries of cannabinoids, including CBD, began to unfold as researchers discovered the role of the human endocannabinoid system in maintaining good health. We’ll discuss this in more detail shortly.

As the 1970’s progressed, however, cannabis extracts were once again being used for healing. A quarter of a century later, in 1996, the state of California legalized the medicinal use of cannabis for the treatment of a list of serious medical conditions, including cancer.

Over the past few decades, there has been an explosion of research into the health benefits of CBD and other cannabinoids.

CBD has been quickly gaining acceptance in the U.S. as a result of media coverage by respected health experts such as Dr. Sanjay Gupta. The message of CBD’s healing powers is beginning to reach the masses.

Today CBD oil is available to everyone and research into CBD’s effect on the human body has ramped up substantially.

Modern technology has provided methods of refining and isolating CBD, and even increasing the bioavailability of CBD oil through technologies such as nanoemulsions which make CBD water-soluble and increase its potency.

The demand for CBD is growing so quickly that sales are expected to surpass $1 billion by 2020. [1]

How To Use This Guide

This guide is broken up into 5 sections:

  1. CBD Oil Basic Information
  2. CBD Oil and Your Health
  3. Research Studies on CBD Oil
  4. Administering CBD Oil
  5. Getting Started with CBD Oil

In Chapter 1 we’ll discuss some basic information about CBD Oil such as what it is and where it comes from. We’ll also provide answers to some of the most frequent questions asked by new CBD users.

In Chapter 2 we’ll go into some detail about some of the active ingredients in CBD oil and how they affect the human body.

In Chapter 3 we’ll delve into some of the research that’s being done by medical science to uncover CBD’s potential health benefits.

In Chapter 4 we’ll go over some of the products that contain CBD oil, and the ways in which CBD oil can be administered.

Then, finally, in Chapter 5, we’ll get you started by providing some advice on how to choose the right product for your needs and how to find a trustworthy source.

The information in the first three chapters falls under the heading of “good to know,” but if you’re anxious to get started, it’s not required reading.

If you’ve already started using CBD or have purchased some CBD, we recommend that you skip to Chapters 4 and 5 so that you can make sure you’ve got the right product for you, learn how to properly use it, and determine how much you should be taking. Once you’re clear on usage and dosage recommendations you can go back and get better educated on how CBD oil works and what conditions CBD oil is commonly used to treat.

Medical Disclaimer

Before we begin, The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act requires that we inform you that the efficacy of CBD oil products has not been confirmed by FDA-approved research as a treatment for any medical condition. The information in this document is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

This guide contains information that will help you make educated decisions about why and how to use CBD oil. It is not intended to provide medical advice.

It’s important that the reader seek the advice of a qualified medical professional who is well versed in the therapeutic use of CBD before beginning any treatment regimen.

And with that, let’s get started.


Chapter 1 – CBD Oil Basic Information

In this chapter, we’ll discuss some basic information such as what CBD oil is, where it comes from, and how it’s produced. We’ll also answer some of new CBD users’ most frequently asked questions.

What is CBD Oil?

CBD oil is a natural essential oil which is extracted from the flowers and leaves of the cannabis plant.

It is used by people all over the world as a dietary supplement and for a variety of therapeutic purposes.

CBD oil contains a variety of active compounds such as cannabinoids and terpenes which we will discuss in greater detail in Chapter 2. It has been shown in research studies to be well-tolerated and non-toxic to humans.

Depending on the formulation of a product it may contain other active and beneficial ingredients as well such as hemp seed oil which contains omega fatty acids, amino acids, vitamins, minerals, and other beneficial compounds.

About the Cannabis Plant

Cannabis is one of a genus of plants known as Cannabaceae. There are two main species of cannabis which are cultivated for human consumption, namely Cannabis indica, and Cannabis sativa.

Sativa plants are taller and produce more fiber and are therefore the species from which hemp cultivation arose. Indica plants are shorter and bushier and, therefore, less suitable for farming for either industrial purposes or for production of food, but well-suited for producing medical marijuana.

The Differences Between Hemp and Marijuana

Marijuana is high in the psychoactive compound, THC, or delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol, the compound in marijuana that causes a high.

Marijuana is rightly considered to be a “drug.” It is cultivated mainly for medicinal and “recreational” purposes. Both indica and sativa strains, as well as hybrids of the two, are used to produce marijuana.

The United States federal government considers marijuana to be a Class I controlled substance. However, many US states have instituted legislation to regulate its cultivation and allow its use as medicine. Some states have also legalized marijuana for recreational use.

Hemp is not marijuana. Although hemp does contain some cannabinoids, it has negligible amounts of THC. In fact, in order to be legally cultivated, industrial hemp must contain less than 0.3% THC. Industrial hemp is grown for food and fibers. It contains relatively small concentrations of cannabinoids and terpenes. It is not the most desirable source of CBD oil.

While many of the CBD products on the market are produced from industrial hemp, The CBD oil in Joy Organics products is made from a CBD-rich Cannabis sativa strain known as PCR hemp. PCR is an acronym for phytocannabinoid rich. PCR hemp contains as much as ten times the concentration of CBD as generic industrial hemp and negligible amounts of THC. It does not cause a high, and is therefore not considered to be a drug.

Types of CBD Oil

Let’s now take a look at some of the variety of types of CBD oil products and compare their qualities.

CBD From PCR Hemp vs. CBD From Marijuana

Essential oils can also be extracted from marijuana, the same way they can be extracted from hemp. The essential oils made from marijuana are correctly referred to as cannabis oil. Cannabis oil is only legal in states which allow the cultivation of marijuana. Extracts made from marijuana may contain some CBD, but will also contain enough THC to cause a high. Therefore cannabis oil is considered to be a controlled substance.

For the purposes of this document, we are only concerned with CBD oil produced from PCR hemp. We are not concerned with THC-containing cannabis oils made from marijuana, nor are we concerned with extracts of industrial hemp which have low levels of cannabinoids and terpenes.

Raw CBD Oil vs. CBD Concentrate

When the essential oils of the hemp plant are first extracted, the resulting product is considered raw hemp extract. This raw extract can be put through a series of filtration and distillation processes to remove unwanted compounds such as waxes and chlorophyll to produce various classes of oils differing in purity and CBD content. These refined oils are referred to as CBD concentrate or CBD distillate.

Full-Spectrum CBD Oil

Earlier we mentioned another class of compounds called terpenes. Raw PCR hemp extract contains terpenes as well as other cannabinoid compounds similar to CBD. Because it retains the natural balance of cannabinoids and terpenes found in the original plant, we refer to these products as full-spectrum oils.

CBD Isolate

CBD can also be isolated and purified. Pure CBD is known in the industry as CBD isolate. In their pure form, and at room temperature, cannabinoids are solid crystals. Purified cannabinoids are colorless and odorless. CBD isolate can be consumed directly or used as an additive in other preparations such as edibles and beverages, however it is devoid of the beneficial terpenes and other cannabinoids found naturally in the plant.

CBD-Rich Oil

Another term you may hear is CBD-rich oil. This term is generally used to label a CBD oil which has gone through some initial filtration and distillation steps to remove the unwanted compounds such as the chlorophyll and waxes. The resulting product has a higher concentration of CBD than the raw extract, hence the term CBD-rich oil.

CBD-Infused Oil

The term CBD-infused can be used to describe either a product which has been infused with purified CBD isolate, or, it can also refer to a product which has been infused with a CBD-rich, full-spectrum concentrate. A properly labelled product will specify which ingredients were used. If the ingredients include “CBD” or “CBD isolate,” then the product is not full-spectrum. If the ingredients include “CBD-rich hemp oil (or extract)” or “full-spectrum CBD oil,” then, obviously you’re getting a full-spectrum product. It’s important to know which is in a product because they produce different effects.

Full-Spectrum vs. Broad-Spectrum CBD Oil

Another product which needs to be discussed is what is known as broad-spectrum CBD oil. Full-spectrum CBD oil, as we mentioned, retains the original concentrations of cannabinoids and terpenes found in raw PCR hemp extract. Broad-spectrum CBD oil, on the other hand, is made by combining CBD isolate and individual terpenes with an oil base. It is not made with natural CBD-rich extracts. The CBD and terpenes in so-called broad-spectrum oils have been stripped of their natural essence. Often times, the terpenes used in these products are not even sourced from cannabis, but rather come from other, less-costly plant sources. Some even use dangerous synthetic cannabinoids and terpenes. Although broad-spectrum oils are less expensive to produce, they are generally not sold at a lower price. These products are produced by companies which are far less concerned with the quality and effectiveness of their products than they are with simply maximizing their profits. If you’re going to spend money on CBD oil, get the real thing.

A List of CBD Oil Products

To summarize, there are a variety of products which contain varying levels of CBD as well as other cannabinoids and terpenes.

ILLUSTRATION: Show steps connected with arrows. 1. Hemp plant, 2. Raw Extract (beaker), 3. Full-spectrum CBD oil (dropper bottle), 4. CBD concentrate (large jar), 5. CBD isolate (pile of powder)

  • Hemp oil – oil produced from hemp seeds, does not contain CBD.
  • Raw industrial hemp extract – a low-quality source of CBD oil.
  • Raw PCR hemp extract – a high-quality, full-spectrum product which is rich in CBD and contains all the naturally occurring compounds including cannabinoids and terpenes.
  • CBD concentrate or distillate – a full-spectrum product from which unwanted compounds have been removed.
  • CBD isolate – purified CBD, does not contain other beneficial terpenes and cannabinoids.
  • CBD-rich oil – either full-spectrum CBD concentrate or an oil infused with full-spectrum CBD concentrate.
  • CBD-infused – generally refers to a product infused with pure CBD, but is also used sometimes to refer to a full-spectrum product.
  • Broad-spectrum oil – an oil which has been “doped” with CBD isolate and terpenes, or possibly dangerous synthetic compounds.

Now that we’ve cleared up these terms let’s answer some of the most common questions asked by first time CBD users.

Frequently Asked Questions of Beginners

CBD oil, as you can see, is a complicated product. And the current CBD market can be compared to the Wild West. There are no real rules or regulations as to what a CBD oil product can contain and what it can be called. There is a great deal of misinformation floating around. And, of course, this causes a great deal of confusion.

One of the main points of confusion comes from the fact that the media often uses the term marijuana to refer to hemp and vice versa. This raises other issues, the most common of which are the legality of CBD oil, whether or not it causes a high, whether or not it can cause you to fail a drug test, and whether or not it has any side effects. Let’s answer each of these questions in brief.

Does CBD Oil Get You High?

No. Properly produced CBD oil from hemp does not contain THC in high enough concentrations that can cause a high.

THC acts upon particular receptors in the brain which changes brain chemistry and therefore alters consciousness. CBD does not trigger these receptors. In fact, it may actually prevent them from reacting to THC and thus minimize its effects.

CBD oils produced by some manufacturers can contain trace amounts of THC. Joy Organics products, however, are produced using a technology which completely removes THC while leaving the other cannabinoids and terpenes intact. So there is zero chance of Joy Organics products causing a high.

Is CBD Oil Legal?

There is a lot of confusion on this issue. Hemp extract is considered a food product and is therefore 100% legal just like peppermint extract or vanilla extract. The confusion is mainly caused by ignorance of the fact that marijuana and hemp are not the same plant. As we said, cannabis oil is not legal outside of states which have specifically legalized marijuana, and it cannot be sold or transported across state lines. This is not the case with hemp-derived CBD oil.

Does CBD Show Up On Drug Tests?

Considering that CBD is derived from cannabis, and that marijuana is a type of cannabis, and marijuana is considered a drug, it’s fair to wonder whether or not CBD will cause a false positive on a drug test.

Drug tests do not test for CBD. CBD properly produced from legal hemp cannot produce a false positive for THC use. CBD oil products sourced from marijuana, as we mentioned, are likely to contain some amount of THC and likely to make you fail a drug test.

Some CBD oil products which are sourced from hemp, can also contain THC in some instances. The legal limit for THC levels in industrial hemp is less than three parts in 1,000, or 0.3%. So for every 1,000 mg of CBD, which is an extremely high dose, there is less than .3 mg of THC. So, if you’re taking extremely large doses of a CBD oil product which has not had all THC removed, you may be susceptible to a false positive result during an initial urinary screening but the chances are about 1 in 500 of this happening. And a second screening to confirm THC use will invariably rule it out.

If you are required to undergo drug screenings by your employer you need to be fully aware of the contents of your CBD oil. Don’t use CBD oil made from marijuana. You have no way of knowing that the product is THC-free unless you have a lab at home. In fact, we don’t recommend using any CBD product that does not specify that the product is completely THC-free, meaning all THC has been removed such as with Joy Organics products.

What Are the Side Effects of CBD Oil?

CBD is one of the safest active compounds known to man. It’s completely non-toxic and non-addictive. You would have to consume copious amounts of CBD in order to experience any harmful side effects. In fact, there is no known record of anyone ever overdosing on CBD or contracting any particular ailments as a result of overuse.

While pharmaceutical drugs are often developed to target particular bodily systems and provide particular effects, Mother Nature is not always so exacting. The effects of organic compounds can be many and can vary from person to person. Oftentimes herbal compounds can have both desired effects and unwanted effects. These unwanted effects, we call adverse side effects.

In order to determine if an effect is an adverse side effect, you need to know what the desired effects are. The effects which are desired by one user may not be desired by another user.

Let’s look at an example of how CBD might work differently for different people. Some people take CBD oil in order to help them regulate their metabolism and lose weight. Some users claim that this works like a charm, while others claim that CBD actually increases their appetite. If you’re trying to lose weight, an increase in appetite would be considered an unwanted side effect. On the other hand, if you’re trying to gain weight, an increase in appetite is a desired effect.

The vast majority of CBD oil users find that CBD produces no unwanted side effects. On the contrary, many CBD users find that CBD oil provides them with the side-effect-free relief they’ve been looking for.

Will CBD Make Me Drowsy?

CBD has what are called biphasic properties. We’ll discuss this more in chapter 4, but this just means that CBD oil may have different effects depending on the dosage. Taken in nominal doses CBD is unlikely to cause drowsiness. However, taken in higher doses there is the potential that it could cause drowsiness.

Alcohol is a perfect example of a drug with biphasic properties. Below a certain blood level, alcohol provides a stimulating effect and can make its user more active and social, while larger amounts of alcohol can have a depressant effect resulting in unconsciousness.

Can I Give My Pet CBD Oil?

Yes, CBD is safe for pets. However, the size and activity level of your pet will determine the optimal dosage. Pets can range in weight from under a pound for rodents to many hundreds of pounds for animals such as horses. Some pets are pretty much sedentary and don’t get much exercise, while others are highly active and have a much higher metabolism. It’s a good idea to talk with a veterinarian who is familiar with CBD’s medicinal uses before you treat your pet with CBD oil.

Chapter 2 – CBD Oil and Health

What, Exactly, Is CBD?

CBD is short for cannabidiol. It is just one of several different molecules found in the cannabis plant called cannabinoids. CBD is not an acronym. Cannabidiol has been shortened to CBD simply because it’s customary for cannabinoids to have a three-letter designation such as THC for tetrahydrocannabinol, CBG for cannabigerol, CBN for for cannabinol, and so forth. THC is the more famous member of the cannabinoids family. It’s the one that causes a high. And it’s mostly found in marijuana. We’ll take a quick look at some other common cannabinoids later on.

What Are Cannabinoids?

Cannabinoids are active compounds produced by all cannabis plants. They account for most of the health benefits of cannabis. Cannabinoids found in plants are technically called phytocannabinoids. Phytocannabinoids mimic compounds which we call endocannabinoids that are produced naturally by all mammals.


  • Phytocannabinoids – Cannabinoids produced by plants
  • Endocannabinoids – Cannabinoids produced by the human body

Other cannabinoids found in CBD-rich PCR hemp include cannabichromene (CBC), and cannabigerol (CBG). Cannabichromene (CBC) is the third most common cannabinoid found in cannabis. Like CBD, cannabichromene is non-psychoactive. Cannabigerol (CBG) is produced early on in the hemp’s growth cycle. Both CBC and CBG are believed to have properties similar to those of CBD.

What Do Endocannabinoids Do?

Endocannabinoids, those produced naturally by our bodies, are signaling molecules. They are technically called neurotransmitters. Hormones are a more familiar type of neurotransmitter.

A vast array of neurotransmitters are produced by the nervous system in response to various states of health and also environmental factors. They interact with receptors found on the surface of cells throughout our bodies. Their job is to instruct a cell to adjust its activities. This can include changing how cells react to other neurotransmitters.

ILLUSTRATION: neurotransmitters, synapse, receptors, etc.

In order to illustrate how neurotransmitters work, let’s use an analogy.

The brain doesn’t connect with every cell in your body, just like traffic officers can’t connect directly with every car on the road to be able to instruct individual drivers how to behave in every traffic situation. In order to manage traffic, we implement traffic signals. These include street signs, traffic lights, the lines on the road and so on. Traffic signals inform drivers where they can and cannot travel, when they should stop and when they should go, how fast they are allowed to move, and so on.

Some of these signals can sense what’s going on in the environment such as when a car pulls up to a traffic light. The sensor triggers a controller causing the light to change, thereby changing the behavior of the drivers approaching that intersection.

In the same way, your body’s nervous system connects to a wide variety of sensors to keep track of every system in your body. The signals from these sensors are decoded by the brain and the nervous system. If it is determined that a system has gone out of balance, the nervous system produces neurotransmitters which travel through the bloodstream and interact with receptors on cells and instructing them to adjust their behavior.

The Human Endocannabinoid System (ECS)

Now that we understand how neurotransmitters work to adjust our cellular activity, let’s take a look at the role of cannabinoids in particular and their role in maintaining homeostasis — a state of balance, within the body.

The human endocannabinoid system (ECS) has two components. First is the endocannabinoid receptors found on the surface of cells throughout the body. And second are the endocannabinoids themselves which interact with those receptors.

For an example, CBD is known to mimic a signaling molecule called anandamide. Anandamide is responsible for the production and uptake of serotonin. Serotonin is often referred to as the “bliss molecule” because levels of serotonin in the body are directly associated with mood. Serotonin is the neurotransmitter which is responsible for “runner’s high.” Serotonin levels are often low in people suffering from depression and anxiety. Supplementation with CBD has been shown to raise serotonin levels.

The endocannabinoid system is vast and far-reaching. It regulates a wide array of bodily functions, from appetite regulation to sleep patterns, moods, metabolism, immune response, the lifespan of cells, and much more. This is the reason that CBD seems to effect such a wide range of conditions.

List of common cannabinoids

Below is a list of the most common cannabinoid molecules found in cannabis and some of the effects they are believed to possess.

  • Cannabidiol (CBD) – The second most common cannabinoid produced by the cannabis plant, non-psychotropic (it doesn’t get you high).
  • Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) – The primary psychoactive compound in marijuana that gives users a feeling of euphoria.
  • Cannabichromene (CBC) – The third most common cannabinoid, also non-psychoactive, is thought to have anti-inflammatory, anti-depressant, and anti-fungal effects.
  • Cannabinol (CBN) – Believed to act as an appetite stimulant, antibiotic, anti-asthmatic, pain reliever, and sedative.
  • Cannabigerol (CBG) – Non-psychoactive, used as an antibiotic, antidepressant, and pain reliever.
  • Tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCv) less psychoactive than THC, known to have anticonvulsant and neuroprotective properties.
  • Cannabidivarin (CBDv) – Similar to CBD in its effects.
  • Delta(8) THC – Similar to delta(9)-THC, less psychoactive, may have neuroprotective and anti-anxiety properties.
  • THCa and CBDa – Compounds found in raw cannabis, non-psychotropic, use for anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties.

Additional Functions of Cannabinoids

Although cannabinoids are mainly known for the role they play in the human endocannabinoid system, they also function in other ways.

For example, cannabinoids are known to have antioxidant effects. Vitamin C is an example of a common antioxidant.

The process of metabolizing food can produce harmful molecules we refer to as free radicals. These molecules can latch onto molecules in our cells causing oxidation, the same process that causes metals to rust. Free radicals can harm or kill a cell and damage DNA. Antioxidant molecules such as cannabinoids latch onto free radicals rendering them harmless.

CBD is also known to have antibacterial and anti-biological properties as well. In a similar process as described above, CBD can latch onto germs, killing them or rendering them harmless.

What Are Terpenes?

Terpenes are a class of volatile hydrocarbon compounds produced by the cannabis plant as well as most other plants. Terpenes readily evaporate at room temperature, and our noses are highly sensitive to terpenes.

Terpenes are recognized as safe for human consumption by the Food and Drug Association and are used in a wide variety of food and cosmetic products.

In nature, terpenes act as both a repellent for pests as well as attractants for pollinators and seed spreaders. In cannabis, terpenes are produced in highest concentrations in the plant’s female flowers.

Although terpene molecules are all very similar, each has its own unique scent and flavor. Various combinations of terpenes are responsible for the distinct aromas of cannabis strains.

Terpenes can also have powerful effects on our bodies. In fact, terpenes have been utilized by humans for millennia in a healing modality known as aromatherapy. For example, the scent of citrus is produced primarily by a combination of limonene and pinene, both of which are thought to elevate mood.

Below are some of the most common terpenes along with their reported benefits:

  • Linalool has a floral scent and is prominent in lavender. It is used as a sleep aid as well as a pain reliever, and an anti-inflammatory. It has also been used in the treatment of psychosis and anxiety and is believed to have antiepileptic effects.
  • Terpinolene is produced by oregano, marjoram, cumin, lilac, citrus, and conifers. It has been used as a treatment for insomnia for hundreds of years. It’s believed to be an anti-biological agent with anti-tumor, antibacterial, and antifungal properties.
  • Myrcene is found in plants such as mango, hops, bay leaves, eucalyptus, and lemongrass, among others. It is thought is used in the treatment of spasms, insomnia, and pain. It’s also believed to have anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory effects.
  • Citronellol is produced in geraniums, rose, and citrus. You might recognize its odor from its use as a mosquito and moth repellent. It’s thought to have anti-biological, anti-inflammatory, and immune-regulating effects.
  • Caryophyllene is found in basils, cloves and black pepper. It is believed to have anti-inflammatory, anti-biological, and antioxidant properties.
  • Pinene is found in pine trees and orange peels. It is thought to have anti-inflammatory effects and has been used for centuries in the treatment of asthma.
  • Limonene has a strong citrus odor and bitter taste. It is commonly used for treating toenail fungus, gastric reflux, depression, and anxiety. It’s also believed to have anti-tumor and immuno-stimulant properties.
  • Humulene is found in hops and has an odor reminiscent of beer. It has been used for centuries for anti-tumor, anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, and appetite suppressant effects.
  • Camphene has an earthy, woodsy aroma. It is a component of camphor oil and ginger oil which are both to provide therapeutic effects. It has been used for centuries in the treatment of cardiovascular disease.
  • Terpineol is found in lilacs and other flower blossoms and has a sweet scent. It is thought to produce calming, relaxing effects. It also exhibits antibiotic and antioxidant properties.
  • Phellandrene is produced in a number of herbs and spices. It is responsible for the aroma of peppermint. It is often used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat digestive disorders and treat systemic fungal infections.

This is just a short list of terpenes. There are many more.

Some terpenes can act as neurotransmitters. They can also act as serotonin uptake inhibitors, enhance norepinephrine activity, and increase dopamine activity, all of which are known to produce antidepressant effects.

More importantly, terpenes also act on cannabinoid receptors and are known to modify the effects of cannabinoids.

The Entourage Effect

Although not as potent as cannabinoids in terms of their overall effects, terpenes are valuable medicinal components of cannabis.

The overall effect of the rich combination of cannabinoids and terpenes is known metaphorically as The Entourage Effect. The word entourage refers to a group of people who travel and work together. In the case of cannabis, these cannabinoids and terpenes work together to produce a range of effects which is thought to be greater than the sum of its individual components.

More research is needed to determine the exact role that terpenes play in the overall effects of CBD oil, but it seems clear that terpenes work in concert with cannabinoids to produce a richer effect than CBD alone.

As we mentioned earlier some CBD oil products are actually simply oil infused with pure CBD. These products do not have the added benefits of terpenes and other cannabinoids and do not produce the entourage effect. They are not recommended.

Joy Organics products contain only full-spectrum CBD oils with a rich mix of cannabinoids and terpenes, minus any THC.

Chapter 3 – Research Into CBD’s Therapeutic Benefits

In just over a half century, cannabinoids have gone from obscurity to one of the most researched families of compounds in the world.

The secrets of cannabinoids are vast and they run deep. After many years of study, still very little is known about how cannabinoids interact with the endocannabinoid system as well as other complex organs and systems in our bodies such as the immune system, the nervous system, the endocrine system, the cardiovascular system, the digestive system, the heart, liver, and kidneys, the epidermis, and others.

But one thing is certain — CBD does have an effect on all of these complex systems which, themselves, are not fully understood. Determining the exact mechanisms which are producing CBD’s vast array of effects might take many more decades.

In the meantime, much research is underway, and many research study reports about CBD’s effects on the human body have already been published.

In this chapter, we’ll take a look at some of the medical conditions for which CBD’s effects are being studied, and discuss the researchers’ conclusions. We’ll also look at some of the conditions for which treatment with CBD has been approved at both the state and federal levels.

History of CBD Research

Raphael Mechoulam, Professor of Medicinal Chemistry at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, was the first to identify delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), back in 1964. He recognized THC, as the main psychoactive component of cannabis. He was also the first researcher to produce synthetic THC in the lab.

In 1968 the University of Mississippi was entrusted with growing marijuana for research by the predecessor agency to the DEA. That same year, a report written by the UK government’s Advisory Committee on Drug Dependence stated that “the long-term consumption of cannabis in moderate doses has no harmful effects… Cannabis is less dangerous than the opiates, amphetamines and barbiturates, and also less dangerous than alcohol…”

Only two years later, the United States declared marijuana a Class I substance with a high potential for abuse and no medicinal value. Two years after that, in 1972, a report based on a comprehensive study by the Department of Health, Education and Welfare recommended that marijuana be removed from the scheduling system and decriminalized. Then President Richard Nixon rejected the recommendations.

In a court battle in 1976, a federal Judge ruled that a plaintiff in a lawsuit against the government was using marijuana out of ‘medical necessity’ making the plaintiff, Robert Randall, the first legal medical cannabis patient.

In 1978, as a direct result of the lawsuit, the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) began supplying cannabis to several patients whose physicians applied for and received ‘compassionate use’ rights under Investigational New Drug Applications (IND) rules. Most of the medical research done on cannabis has taken place in the 40 years since 1978.

In 1980, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) began a trial of an experimental drug called Marinol, which was actually a synthetic form of THC.

Simultaneously, six US states began conducting research on both smoked marijuana and Marinol in cancer patients who had not responded to traditional anti-vomiting medications. Reports based on these studies showed that thousands of patients found marijuana to be safer and more effective than Marinol. The NCI’s report, however, claimed that some patients responded well to Marinol.

After four years of study, in 1985, the FDA chose to ignore the state-sponsored studies and approved Marinol as a prescription medication.

The human endocannabinoid system was discovered by researcher Miles Herkenham, Senior Investigator at the National Institute of Mental Health, in 1990. This resulted in a wave of new studies into the pharmacological effects of cannabinoids.

It wasn’t until 1992, 20 years after the discovery of THC, that the first endocannabinoids were discovered proving that the human body produces its own cannabinoids. The first endocannabinoid identified was anandamide. Anandamide is responsible for such effects as ‘runner’s high.’

In 1993, as research results began to pour in, the American Medical Student Association unanimously endorsed a statement calling for the down-scheduling of Cannabis to Schedule 2. Since that time, based on reams of data, there have been scores of attempts to pressure the federal government to relent on this matter. So far none have been successful.

Let’s go ahead now and take a look at some of the research that has been done in the past few decades into the mechanisms and effects of cannabinoids and the ECS.

Research Studies On CBD

A non-profit CBD information source known as Project CBD maintains a comprehensive list of conditions for which the potential therapeutic effects of CBD are being studied.

Some of these conditions have been the subject of only a few studies, while others have been the topic of a larger number of studies. Some are done on animals and other are performed on cells in petri dishes and test tubes. There are also a handful of studies on CBD’s effects on human subjects.

The preponderance of evidence presented as a result of these studies points to one conclusion: There is a vast list of human ailments which seems to respond to treatment with CBD.

In fact, the United States government itself even has a patent on CBD which goes into detail on the CBD molecule’s antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.

The patent’s abstract section reads:

Cannabinoids have been found to have antioxidant properties… This new found property makes cannabinoids useful in the treatment and prophylaxis of wide variety of oxidation associated diseases, such as ischemic, age-related, inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. The cannabinoids are found to have particular application as neuroprotectants, for example in limiting neurological damage following ischemic insults, such as stroke and trauma, or in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease and HIV dementia. Nonpsychoactive cannabinoids, such as cannabidiol, are particularly advantageous to use because they avoid toxicity that is encountered with psychoactive cannabinoids at high doses useful in the method of the present invention.

Here’s a link to the patent:

Here’s a comprehensive list of the conditions upon which CBD’s effects have been, or are being studied:

Acne Depression Nausea
ADD Diabetes Neurodegeneration
ADHD Endocrine Disorders Chronic Pain
Addiction Epilepsy and Seizures Obesity
AIDS Fibromyalgia OCD
ALS Glaucoma Osteoporosis
Alzheimer’s Disease Heart Disease Parkinson’s Disease
Anorexia Huntington’s Disease Prion/Mad Cow disease
Antibiotic Resistance Inflammation PTSD
Anxiety Irritable Bowel Syndrome Rheumatism
Atherosclerosis Kidney Disease Schizophrenia
Arthritis Liver Disease Sickle Cell Anemia
Asthma Metabolic Syndrome Skin Conditions
Autism Migraine Sleep Disorders
Bipolar Mood Disorders Spinal Cord Injury
Cancer Motion Sickness Stress
Digestive Issues Multiple Sclerosis (MS) Stroke and TBI

Let’s now take a look at some of the individual studies.

Research Into CBD’s Effects On Mood Disorders

One of the most common targets of study into CBD’s effects are mood disorders such as anxiety and depression. Much of this research suggests that CBD might be an effective treatment for these disorders.

Research shows that CBD treatment has an effect on levels of the endocannabinoid anandamide, which we mentioned earlier. Anandamide is produced by the nervous system to stimulate the uptake of serotonin in the brain. Serotonin is often referred to as the “happy molecule” because of its ability to improve mood.

People suffering from mood disorders such as anxiety and depression commonly show low levels of serotonin. An increase in serotonin can correspond to an increase in feelings of wellbeing.

Research results suggest that CBD might provide an effective remedy for both anxiety disorders and major depression.

In 2009, The British Journal of Pharmacology published findings from a Brazilian study on CBD’s effects on anxiety in a report titled, “5-HT1A receptors are involved in the cannabidiol-induced attenuation of behavioural and cardiovascular responses to acute restraint stress in rats.” Authors of the report concluded that “CBD can attenuate acute autonomic responses to stress and its delayed emotional consequences by facilitating 5-HT1A receptor-mediated neurotransmission.”

A group of UK and Brazilian researchers studied the effects of Cannabidiol on anxiety, fear and trauma. They published their findings in the 2016 December issue of Frontiers in Pharmacology in a report entitled, “Bidirectional Effects of Cannabidiol on Contextual Fear Memory Extinction.” The study involved mice that had been subjected to fear conditioning. They found that CBD “reduced contextual fear memory expression.”

This suggests that CBD might potentially be of help to those who suffer from conditions such as PTSD.

According to Dr. Blessing from the New York School of Medicine headed a study to examine some of the research on CBD’s effects on anxiety disorders. In his report, entitled, “Cannabidiol as a Potential Treatment for Anxiety Disorders,” Dr. Blessing determined that, “Overall, preclinical evidence supports systemic CBD as an acute treatment of GAD, SAD, PD, OCD, and PTSD.”

Research Into CBD’s Effects On Sleeping Disorders

The human body relies on what we call circadian rhythms (daily rhythms). Our brains determine which activities a cell should be undertaking at which times of day and our nervous system and endocrine system work together to keep cells on a daily schedule. Particular signalling molecules such as cannabinoids are released at particular times of day to adjust activities such as metabolism.

Research suggests that CBD might help to balance the body’s circadian rhythms. In fact, many people who use CBD claim that they not only sleep better at night, but have more energy and alertness during the day.

A review of literature on the effects of cannabinoids on sleep disorders entitled, “Cannabidiol in Humans—The Quest for Therapeutic Targets,” was published in the journal Current Psychiatry. The report states, “Medium- and high-dose CBD is sedating, and has been examined in the context of a number of sleep disorders including insomnia. Initial basic research has suggested that medium-/high-dose CBD is associated with an increase in the percentage of total sleep.”

Another report on CBD’s effects on sleep disorders authored by researchers from the University of Colorado School of Medicine and the Wholeness Center was published in The Permanente Journal. In the report, entitled, “Effectiveness of Cannabidiol Oil for Pediatric Anxiety and Insomnia as Part of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Case Report,” the authors conclude, “Pharmaceutical medications provided partial relief, but results were not long-lasting, and there were major side effects. A trial of cannabidiol oil resulted in a maintained decrease in anxiety and a steady improvement in the quality and quantity of the patient’s sleep.”

Research Into CBD’s Antioxidant Effects

Antioxidants are like molecular landmines that attach themselves to dangerous molecules called free radicals and render them harmless. Free radicals can damage cells and even DNA, resulting in sickness and possibly even cancer. Studies show CBD to be many times more powerful as an antioxidant than vitamin C.

The U.S. Government patent mentioned above also claims that cannabinoids, “act as free radical scavengers for use in prophylaxis and treatment of disease.”

In a research review article published in 2008 entitled, “Cannabidiol in Medicine: A Review of its Therapeutic Potential in CNS Disorders,” authors write, “Cannabidiol exhibits an impressive plethora of actions including anticonvulsant, sedative, hypnotic, antipsychotic, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties, many of which may be of therapeutic relevance as well as serving as leads for pharmaceutical development.”

Research Into CBD’s Anti-Inflammatory Effects

One of CBD’s most impressive benefits is its indisputable ability to reduce inflammation throughout the body.

Inflammation is one of the body’s natural ways of dealing with injuries and infections. Inflammation causes a range of issues including pain, swelling, rashes and other skin irritation, and even kidney and liver diseases. When inflammation gets out of control it can cause severe tissue damage. In fact, inflammation is responsible for the number one cause of death in the US — heart disease.

Autoimmune diseases such as arthritis, and serious conditions of the digestive system including Crohn’s disease and colitis, can also result in chronic inflammation.

Pain is often associated with inflammation. Reducing inflammation often times also reduces pain. In fact, most over-the-counter pain medications such as aspirin and Ibuprofen work by reducing inflammation.

In a 2009 research report entitled, “Cannabinoids as novel anti-inflammatory drugs,” authors write, “In conclusion, cannabinoids have been shown to regulate the tissue response to excessive inflammation in the colon… These results strongly suggest that modulation of the physiological activity of the cannabinoid system during colonic inflammation might be a promising therapeutic tool for the treatment of several diseases characterized by inflammation of the GI tract.”

Research Into CBD’s Effects On Blood Sugar Levels

Numerous scientific studies have been done which suggest that CBD may help regulate blood sugar levels. High blood sugar is the main culprit in a serious condition called diabetes. Diabetes can result in a range of problems from chronic nerve pain to life-threatening ailments such as kidney disease.

Researchers believe that CBD might help to delay or prevent the onset of diabetes.

In a report entitled, “Efficacy and Safety of Cannabidiol and Tetrahydrocannabivarin on Glycemic and Lipid Parameters in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel Group Pilot Study,” a team of U.K. researchers concluded that CBD might be a therapeutic agent for controlling blood sugar levels in subjects with type 2 diabetes.

A 2006 study published in The Journal Autoimmunity, entitled, “Cannabidiol Arrests Onset of Autoimmune Diabetes in NOD mice,” reported that, “CBD can inhibit and delay destructive insulitis and inflammatory Th1-associated cytokine production in NOD mice resulting in a decreased incidence of diabetes possibly through an immunomodulatory mechanism shifting the immune response from Th1 to Th2 dominance.”

In other words, supplementation with CBD might prevent diabetes from developing in those who have a high risk of the disease.

A 2013 study entitled, “Cannabinoids Alter Endothelial Function In the Zucker Rat Model of Type 2 Diabetes,” came to similar conclusions, theorizing that CBD’s benefit for diabetics may be due in part to its ability to relax hypertension in arteries, decreasing the risk of developing diabetes.

Research Into CBD’s Effects On Brain Disorders

There is ample research which suggests that CBD provides neuroprotective benefits. Damage to brain and nerve cells can result in a variety of conditions such as Alzheimer’s Disease, Parkinson’s Disease, and chronic neuropathic pain. CBD seems to protect nerve cells from various kinds of damage.

A research paper published by Frontiers in Pharmacology entitled, “In vivo Evidence for Therapeutic Properties of Cannabidiol (CBD) for Alzheimer’s Disease,” reported that CBD had the ability to mitigate the effects caused by Alzheimer’s Disease.

Researchers conducting another study at the Salk Institute in La Jolla, California published a paper entitled, “Amyloid proteotoxicity initiates an inflammatory response blocked by cannabinoids.” The authors concluded that cannabinoids may reduce beta amyloids in the brain which are thought to cause Alzheimer’s disease. David Schubert, a professor at the Salk Institute and senior author on the study says, “Although other studies have offered evidence that cannabinoids might be neuroprotective against the symptoms of Alzheimer’s, we believe our study is the first to demonstrate that cannabinoids affect both inflammation and amyloid beta accumulation in nerve cells.”

Research Into CBD’s Effects On Cancer

Cells which have passed their expiration date are naturally programmed to commit suicide in a process called apoptosis. This process prevents damaged and decrepit cells from becoming cancerous. It also prevents cancer cells from migrating to other organs in the body in a process known as metastasis.

Numerous studies have suggested that CBD has the ability to initiate apoptosis in damaged and cancerous cells, and might not only be valuable in the treatment of tumors, but in their prevention, as well.

An extensive study on cannabinoids effects on cancer was done at the National Institute of Health entitled, “Cannabinoids, Endocannabinoids, and Cancer.” The report concludes by saying that: “There is a strong agreement that pharmacological targeting of the endocannabinoid system is emerging as one of the most promising new methods for reducing the progression of cancer.”

A team of researchers studying the effects of CBD on aggressive breast cancer cells published a report entitled, “Cannabidiol as a novel inhibitor of Id-1 gene expression in aggressive breast cancer cells.” The authors concluded, “Because CBD inhibits Id-1 expression in aggressive breast cancer cells, a rational drug design strategy could be used to potentially create more potent and efficacious analogues. Moreover, reducing Id-1 expression with cannabinoids could also provide a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of additional aggressive cancers…”

And finally, a 2004 study entitled, “Antitumor Effects of Cannabidiol, a Nonpsychoactive Cannabinoid, on Human Glioma Cell Lines,” published in the Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics suggested that CBD inhibited the growth and spread of tumors. Researchers showed that, “CBD can trigger the apoptosis of human gliomas, a very aggressive tumor characterized by poor clinical prognosis and unsatisfactory response to the currently available pharmacological agents.”

Research Into CBD’s Effects On Epilepsy and Seizure Disorders

Epilepsy is a chronic brain disorder characterized by frequent seizures or convulsions. CBD might potentially prevent and reduce the frequency of seizures in children and adults without the adverse side effects associated with traditional epilepsy medications.

A 1981 study reviewed the results of nearly ten years of clinical trials on the effects of CBD on epileptics. The report, “Hypnotic and antiepileptic effects of cannabidiol,” indicated that CBD use significantly increased the amount of undisturbed sleep in epileptics. In fact, 7 out of 8 patients with a form of epilepsy known to be resistant to existing antiepileptic drugs showed a marked reduction in seizures.

In the same year, the Journal of Clinical Pharmacology published a paper titled, “The Cannabinoids as Potential Antiepileptics,” in which the authors concluded, “The results of a study of the electrophysiological mechanisms of action indicate that cannabidiol produces some unique effects… The anticonvulsant nature of cannabidiol suggests that it has a therapeutic potential in at least three of the four major types of epilepsy: grand mal, cortical focal, and complex partial seizures.”

Finally, in 2017, Korean researcher Chung Mo Koo published a paper in the Journal of Epilepsy Research entitled, “Could Cannabidiol be a Treatment Option for Intractable Childhood and Adolescent Epilepsy?” In the report, Koo reviews three clinical trial studies on CBD oil in the treatment of epilepsy. In one of the studies, patients who received a maximum dosage of 50/mg/kg/day had half as many seizures as they did before the yearlong study.

Koo also discusses several other clinical trials studying CBD’s effects on epilepsy, all of which produced similar results.

Research Into CBD’s Effects On Pain

Studies into CBD’s effects on pain suggest that CBD oil might provide a natural alternative to opioids for the treatment of acute and chronic pain. In fact, numerous research studies have demonstrated the efficacy of CBD for treating a variety of types of pain.

In 2005, CBD was approved in Canada for treatment of central neuropathic pain in multiple sclerosis, and later in 2007 for intractable cancer pain. Many U.S. states have also approved CBD to treat multiple types of painful conditions.

In 2016, a study entitled, “Transdermal cannabidiol reduces inflammation and pain-related behaviors in a rat model of arthritis,” researchers concluded by stating, “These data indicate that topical CBD application has therapeutic potential for relief of arthritis pain-related behaviors and inflammation without evident side-effects.”

In 2011, a study entitled, “The abnormal cannabidiol analogue O-1602 reduces nociception in a rat model of acute arthritis via the putative cannabinoid receptor GPR55,” also concluded that CBD helped to reduce inflammatory pain in rats.

There have also been a number of human studies on CBD’s effects on pain.

In 2010, the Journal of Pain Symptom Management published a research paper from a team of U.K. researchers, entitled, “Multicenter, double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of THC/CBD extract and THC extract in patients with intractable cancer-related pain,” which compared the efficacy of THC/CBD extracts with that of THC-only extract in relieving pain in patients with advanced cancer. Of patients receiving CBD, twice as many reported more than a 30% reduction in pain, while the THC-only treatment didn’t fare much better than a placebo.

State Approved Medical Conditions

Although anyone in the U.S. can buy hemp CBD oil online, some states have looked at the research and determined that CBD oil can be a valuable tool in the treatment of a variety of conditions and have instituted laws allowing doctors to recommend it to their patients. So far, 30 US States, plus Puerto Rico, and Washington D.C. have approved such measures.

Each state has its own list of qualifying conditions. Some lists include broad and inclusive qualifying conditions, while others are strictly limited to a list of particularly severe conditions.

Many of the conditions on these lists are very different from one another, illustrating CBD’s wide range of potential therapeutic uses.

Below are some of the most common qualifying conditions for CBD oil in the U.S.

  • Epilepsy and seizures
  • Cancer
  • Glaucoma
  • Chronic Pain and Neuropathy
  • Severe Nausea
  • Multiple Sclerosis
  • Hepatitis C
  • Crohn’s disease and Colitis
  • Tourette’s syndrome
  • Lou Gehrig’s Disease
  • Cerebral Palsy
  • Muscle Spasticity
  • Arthritis
  • Alzheimer’s Disease & Dementia
  • PTSD
  • Fibromyalgia
  • Muscular Dystrophy
  • Parkinson’s disease
  • Anorexia

This list shows that there is enough credible and compelling research into CBD’s therapeutic benefits that state lawmakers across the country are convinced enough to institute laws allowing its use, even in the face of potential DEA and DOJ legal action under federal cannabis prohibition laws.

Federally Recognized Medical Conditions

The US government’s patent on CBD, written back in 2003 actually lists a number of conditions for which CBD might provide effective relief. These include ischemic (blood flow restriction), age-related, inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. It also states, “The cannabinoids are found to have particular application as neuroprotectants, for example in limiting neurological damage following ischemic insults, such as stroke and trauma, or in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease and HIV dementia.”

Unfortunately, the facts laid out in the patent have had zero effect on federal cannabis policy.

However, after multiphase clinical trials were completed, an FDA panel recently recommended approval of a CBD-based pharmaceutical called Epidiolex, for treatment of intractable epilepsy.

Another concession by the federal government involves the Department of Veterans Affairs. In mid-June 2018, the Senate Appropriations Committee voted to add an amendment to the Department of Veterans Affairs’ (VA) annual spending bill that would prohibit VA interference in the participation in legal cannabis programs by US veterans. The amendment prohibits the VA from denying any services to veterans who use medical cannabis.

The amendment reverses a VA directive that prevents VA physicians from helping veterans access medical cannabis. It also directs the VA to conduct research into the benefits of medical cannabis using whole plant cannabis and extracts. This would include CBD oil.

CBD Drug Interactions

Although very little research has been done in this area, there is a possibility that CBD can affect how the body metabolizes other prescription drugs. The effects could be either beneficial or unwanted depending on the drug.

CBD oil may improve the efficacy of certain drugs, allowing users to reduce their dosage, thus also reducing potential negative side effects. On the other hand, these interactions might reduce the efficacy of certain medications.

One class of drugs that might be affected by the use of CBD are blood thinners such as Warfarin. Using CBD oil along with warfarin might cause an increase in the time required to metabolize the drug.

A report by the Washing D.C. Department of Health entitled, “Medical Cannabis – Adverse Effects & Drug Interactions,” ends by pointing out that CBD inhibits compounds which are involved in the metabolism of certain drugs — CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 — in particular. This can result in extending the time required to metabolize certain drugs. They point out that about a quarter of all drugs are metabolized by CPY3A4. Again, this can be either a good thing or a bad thing depending on the condition and the drug.

A recent study by researchers at the University of Alabama at Birmingham entitled, “Interactions between cannabidiol and commonly used antiepileptic drugs,” published in Epilepsia found evidence that CBD can alter the blood levels of commonly used antiepileptic medications. The report concludes that CBD can cause changes in blood levels of anti-epilepsy drugs including clobazam, topiramate, rufinamide, zonisamide and eslicarbazepine. However, none except for clobazam showed levels outside of the normally accepted range.

More research is required to determine all the potential drug interactions involved in treatment with CBD.

Let’s move on and talk about the various methods which people use to administer CBD and considerations that go along with each method.

Chapter 4 – Administering CBD Oil

In this chapter, we’ll take a look at some of the methods by which CBD is administered. We’ll discuss some of the factors involved in determining dosage. We’ll also look at the strengths and drawbacks of each method and discuss which methods are most often recommended for particular conditions.

Bioavailability of CBD

Not all methods of administering CBD are created equal. Their effectiveness depends not only on the method of consumption and the ingredients in the product, but also the bioavailability of the CBD afforded by each method.

The bioavailability of any active compound is the percentage of a given dosage which ends up in the bloodstream and is thus available for your body to use.

In the case of CBD oil, the active ingredients include both cannabinoids and terpenes. However, for the sake of discussion, we’ll talk only about the bioavailability of CBD itself.

A bioavailability of 100 percent would signify that 100 percent of the CBD in the product is available to your body. The only way to achieve 100 percent bioavailability is through intravenous administration — meaning injected directly into the bloodstream.

Every other method of consumption will result in some percentage of the CBD becoming unavailable to the body for reasons such as becoming trapped in fatty tissues or metabolized (broken down) before it has a chance to enter the bloodstream.

Each method of CBD oil consumption has a particular range of bioavailability. We’ll discuss these factors next, however, we will also touch on them when discussing the benefits and drawbacks of each method.

Bioavailability of CBD Edibles and Capsules

CBD-infused edibles present the lowest bioavailability of any internal application (as opposed to external applications such as skin creams).

The reason edibles have a low bioavailability is twofold. First, because CBD is soluble in oil but not water, it has a tendency to be absorbed into fatty tissues which are high in various oils. As edibles work their way through your digestive system, they encounter these fatty tissues and get trapped making that portion of CBD unavailable.

Secondly, some percentage of orally administered CBD will be metabolized by your liver before it is able to reach your bloodstream.

Researchers estimate that the bioavailability of CBD-infused edibles can range anywhere from 5 percent to 20 percent.

Bioavailability of CBD Tinctures

A tincture is a liquid — usually an oil or an alcohol base — which has been infused with CBD oil. Tinctures are used sublingually, meaning under the tongue. When delivered via this method, the CBD in the tincture can be absorbed directly into the bloodstream via the veins and capillaries in the tissues in your mouth.

Although tinctures will generally have a higher bioavailability than CBD-infused edibles, the actual bioavailability can be difficult to determine.

It is generally assumed that the bioavailability of CBD in tinctures is twice that of edibles — anywhere from 10 percent to 40 percent.

Bioavailability of Inhaled CBD

Aside from intravenous injection, the delivery method with the highest bioavailability is inhalation. CBD can be vaporized or atomized and inhaled. The vapor is absorbed into your lungs in the same way that oxygen is. Furthermore, the effects of inhalation are almost immediate. This is because the CBD directly enters your bloodstream through the capillary-rich tissues in the lungs in the same way that oxygen does.

The bioavailability of inhaled CBD is estimated to range between 25 percent and 60 percent. The actual number depends on the ingredients being vaporized, and other factors such as how much is inhaled in each puff, how deep it is drawn into the lungs, and how quickly it is exhaled.

How Long Does CBD Oil Take To Take Effect?

There are several important factors that come into play when determining the onset time of various methods of administration of CBD oil. Some of these variables are related to CBD itself, and others are related to how the human body reacts to CBD.

Because of unique genetics, no two people react to CBD oil in the same way. Furthermore, factors such as age, health, weight, circulation, and metabolism can all affect the onset time of the effects of CBD oil.

A factor that can be influenced by all of the above is the number of cannabinoid receptors in the body, how they are expressed, and the ability of the body to produce endocannabinoids. An individual who expresses more receptors or produces fewer endocannabinoids may be more sensitive to CBD than someone with an abundance of endocannabinoids or a lack of receptors.

There are also numerous other factors involved such as the type of product being used, how it’s being used, and how much is being used. The onset of edibles will typically be longer than that of tinctures, for example.

As we mentioned, the onset time of inhaled CBD is virtually instantaneous. The onset time of edibles can range anywhere from 20 minutes to over an hour. And the onset time of tinctures can take up to 20 minutes.

These figures are to be considered general guidelines and will vary from person to person, as we mentioned above.

CBD Oil Dosage Recommendations

As with bioavailability and onset time, the ideal dosage of CBD depends on a variety of factors including the product being used, the concentration of the CBD in the product, genetic makeup, sex, weight, and so on.

Some CBD products list a “recommended serving size.” However, without taking into account all of the variables, the recommended serving size might be far too low or possibly even too high. In particular, the serving size will vary greatly depending on the condition for which the CBD is being consumed.

A dosage which is appropriate for one product might be much different than that of a similar product. This is because various CBD oil products contain varying percentages of CBD. Whereas one product might contain 10% CBD, another might contain twice that concentration.

The most important factor to be considered, however, is that both dosage and duration of treatment depend largely on the condition which the user is attempting to treat. One person might simply be using CBD as a dietary supplement to support health and wellness, while another might be using CBD to treat a particular ailment.

Another factor to be considered is whether or not the product being used contains a full-spectrum CBD oil with terpenes. For example, a terpene known as myrcene is known to make the brain-blood barrier more permeable, effectively reducing the required dosage for treating brain conditions.

Given all of the above-listed factors, determining your ideal dosage requires some thinking. Taking too little will not produce the desired effect and will be a waste of time and money. Alternatively, taking more than you need may not provide additional benefits.

It will take some research and experimentation to determine an ideal dosage for a particular person.

Supplemental Dosages

The method for determining a supplemental CBD dosage for health maintenance is different than that of determining a dosage that will effectively treat a particular ailment.

Here are some general guidelines for determining a supplemental dosage of CBD oil:

Stick With One Product

It’s a good idea to put some thought into which product you’re going to use and stick with that product for a while. This allows you to gauge the effects of that particular product. If you vacillate back and forth between different products, determining a dosage will be much harder.

Start With a Low Dosage

When you first begin using CBD oil, it’s a good idea to start with a low dosage. This gives you a chance to determine your body’s reaction to supplementation with CBD. Most experts recommend starting with 1 mg of CBD for every 20 pounds of weight. Using this rule, someone weighing 100 pounds should start with 5 milligrams, while someone weighing over 200 pounds can start with 10 milligrams, and so on.

Start Before Bedtime

When first using CBD oil, it’s best to start at night — about an hour before bedtime. That way, if CBD has a tendency to make you drowsy you’re not dragging during the daytime. It’s uncommon for a low dosage of CBD to cause drowsiness, but it’s good to be sure. If you have no issues take another dose in the morning. If CBD oil does make you sleepy, take it at night. And if it keeps you awake at night, take it during the daytime. Oftentimes CBD oil helps with both nighttime sleep and daytime focus in which case it can be taken multiple times throughout the day.

Increase Your Dosage Slowly

If all goes well but you have not achieved your desired results you can try doubling your dosage. Each time you increase your dosage take a few days to make note of your condition including factors such as energy, sleep, mood, pain levels, and so on.

If a rise in dosage produces unwanted effects such as making you drowsy, back off to a lower dosage. For health maintenance, experts recommend a maximum dosage somewhere between 10 and 100 milligrams per day depending on your size, the bioavailability of the product and so on.

Treating Medical Conditions

If you are trying to treat a particular ailment with CBD oil, skip all the above advice and talk to a medical professional who is knowledgeable in the use of CBD as a therapeutic agent for your condition. Your condition may require larger doses of CBD than you would typically take for health maintenance.

Also try to reach out to people who are successfully using CBD to treat the condition. There are websites dedicated to every ailment you can think of.

Can you take too much CBD oil?

CBD is completely non-toxic. Research into CBD’s effects on the human body has shown that CBD is well-tolerated in humans. You would have to consume quite a bit of CBD oil before it results in any truly adverse health effects. There is no known record of anyone ever being poisoned by, or overdosing on CBD.

However, taking more CBD than needed might cause some unwanted effects such as making you too relaxed for particular activities such as work or sports.

Once you have arrived at a particular dosage based on the product you are using, it’s a good idea to stick with that product.

CBD Oil Delivery Methods

Let’s now take a look at some of the CBD oil delivery methods that are available and the pros and cons of each, in order to help you to determine which product, or products, are right for you.

Some of the factors that should be considered when determining which product is ideal for you are your lifestyle, the reasons you’re using CBD oil such as for cannabinoid supplementation or to treat a particular condition, the onset time of the delivery method, and the bioavailability of the method.

Lifestyle Considerations

In regards to lifestyle, some products are more convenient than others, some products travel better than others, and some products are simply more enjoyable to use than others. Edibles and capsules are preferred for traveling. There’s nothing to drop and break or spill. On the other hand, if you’re on a road trip and you have to leave them in a hot car, gummy candies and capsules might not fare well and will probably melt into one big blob. Hard candies, or baked goods, on the other hand, will withstand the heat much better.

Conditional Considerations

Certain delivery methods are better for certain conditions. For example, if you’re trying to treat a skin condition, you can treat it directly by using a topical product. If you’re treating a digestive condition, edibles are a better choice, and if you’re treating a condition such as asthma, an inhaled product might be a good choice.

Again, consult with a qualified medical professional to discuss the methods of administration which would be best for you

Onset Time Considerations

As mentioned, various methods of administration require different amounts of time to take effect. For example, edibles can take upwards of the hour or more to take effect, whereas inhalation methods are virtually instantaneous.

If you’re using CBD oil as a dietary supplement, onset time is not really a factor. On the other hand, if you’re using CBD oil to treat a condition with a sudden onset such as PTSD or panic attacks, you’ll definitely want to use a product with a faster onset time.

Bioavailability Considerations

Bioavailability, as we pointed out earlier, is the amount of CBD that actually makes its way into your bloodstream. This is really only a factor if your onset time and the reason for using CBD oil are not considerations. For example, if you’re trying to treat a stomach ailment, you’re going to want to use an edible product regardless of its low bioavailability. Topicals are better for skin issues regardless of bioavailability.

If these things are not considerations, however, the main consideration here is value. CBD is not inexpensive like products such as vitamins and minerals. You definitely want to try to maximize the value you get for your money. If a product has only 10% bioavailability, you’re essentially paying five times more for your CBD than if you used a product which has a 50% bioavailability.

Dosage Considerations

Another consideration is how accurate you would like to be with your dosage. It’s easy to gauge dosage when you’re taking capsules, for example, but much harder to gauge dosage when vaping since it depends on factors such as how much you inhale and how deeply you inhale it.

With that knowledge, let’s take a closer look at the best uses, pros, and cons of individual delivery methods.

CBD Oils and Tinctures

Earlier, we discussed the fact that there are a variety of products which makers refer to as CBD oil. These can include everything from raw hemp extract, to more refined products, to pure CBD-infused oil. There are also a number of types of oil which are used as a base for CBD oil. Some CBD oil products also contain added ingredients such as added additional terpenes, essential oils, vitamins, and so on.

Oral vs. Sublingual Administration

What we have not discussed is that there are also two types of CBD oil tinctures. The first, which we have described, are oil-based tinctures. However, there are also alcohol-based tinctures. Whereas oil-based products can be used both orally and sublingually (under the tongue), alcohol-based tinctures are generally only used sublingually.

Alcohol tinctures have a faster onset time and a higher bioavailability than oil-based tinctures. This is because blood is water-based, and oil and water do not mix well. This doesn’t mean alcohol is necessarily a better choice. In fact, alcohol tinctures are generally not full-spectrum products and do not provide the added benefits you’ll get from the additional cannabinoids and the terpenes found in full-spectrum products.

To use a tincture, simply place the recommended amount of drops under your tongue where it will be absorbed directly into your bloodstream.

Oil-based tinctures can also be used orally. A good example of why you might want to use an oil tincture orally is to treat conditions related to inflammation of the throat and esophagus.

Tinctures generally come in a dropper bottle for obvious reasons, however, CBD oils can also just come in a plain bottle and administered with a spoon in the same way that cough syrup would be taken.

Pros and Cons of Oils and Tinctures

Tinctures are generally used at home in the morning and the evening, and can also be used at work if your situation allows it. As mentioned they can have a relatively quick onset time and higher bioavailability than edibles, and so are a better choice when treating conditions such as anxiety.

The downside of tinctures and oils is that they don’t travel well. They can be messy if you’re trying to use them on the go. They also generally come in a breakable bottle with a breakable dropper. If you’re looking for a product to take hiking, for example, tinctures are probably not your best choice.

CBD Oil Capsules

CBD oil capsules are generally delivered orally. There are cases where you might want to puncture a capsule for use on the skin, but for the most part, this is an orally administered product.

Capsules are made with gelatin which melts with minutes in your stomach delivering the entire dosage of CBD oil to the stomach. This means that none of it will get absorbed into the tissues in your mouth or throat. And, depending on whether or not you take them with food, very little is likely to make its way through the rest of your digestive system.

Capsule Types

There are two types of capsules which are commonly used for CBD oil. The first is your standard capsule which has a plastic-like look and feel. The second is a softgel capsule which has a more rubber consistency like gelatin. There’s really no upside or downside to either of these types of capsules.


Joy Organics tinctures and capsules are formulated using a patent-pending water-soluble nanoemulsion technology which encapsulates the active compounds in nano-sized emulsions. The average size of nanoemulsion CBD oil droplets is between 4 and 200 times smaller than the industry standard. This smaller size leads to much higher absorption in the blood and, therefore, results in extremely high bioavailability. Because of this, less nanoemulsion CBD oil is needed to produce the same results as regular CBD oil.

Pros and Cons of Capsules

As we mentioned, capsules, because they dissolve quickly, will deliver a dosage of CBD directly into your stomach. If you’re treating conditions such as nausea or ulcers of the stomach, this is a perfect delivery method.

Capsules are also very convenient and easy to use with no mess, and they also allow for exact dosing. If a capsule contains 25 milligrams of CBD, assuming you’re using a reputable manufacturer with good production methods, you know you’re getting a dosage of 25 milligrams of CBD.

The downsides or capsules are they have a longer onset time. Also, as mentioned, when taken on an empty stomach, very little of the CBD will make its way into your intestines as most of it will be directly absorbed into the lining of your stomach.

A product which does not melt so quickly or digest so easily would be better suited for treating issues related to the intestines. Otherwise, capsules can be taken with food for the same effect.

It’s also important to note here that capsules which do not use nanoemulsions have far lower bioavailability than those which do contain nanoemulsions such as those sold by Joy Organics.

CBD-Infused Edibles and Beverages

Most kinds of edible food and beverage products can be infused with CBD oil. This includes candies, baked goods, soups, sauces, and so on, as well as just about any kind of beverage.

However, there is a big caveat here. Many of these products are infused with purified CBD rather than a full-spectrum CBD oil. There are a couple reasons for this.

Firstly, CBD oil has a strong flavor which changes the taste of just about any food or beverage to which it is added. Pure CBD, on the other hand, is flavorless and tasteless. So if a maker wants to add CBD to a product without changing its flavor they’ll infuse it with pure CBD rather than a full-spectrum oil.

Joy Organics products, on the other hand, are all made using full-spectrum CBD oil and have the added benefits of the entourage effect which we mentioned earlier. So, keep in mind that a serving containing 10 milligrams of pure CBD will have just that. Whereas a product with a full-spectrum oil that contains 10 milligrams of CBD will also contain some amount of other beneficial cannabinoids and terpenes.

Candies vs Baked Goods

Just about any kind of edible product can be made with either full-spectrum CBD oil or pure CBD. The two most common type of edibles are candies such as gummy bears, hard candy, and chocolate. CBD-infused baked goods such as brownies, cookies, and so forth are also common.

The onset time and bioavailability of these CBD-infused edibles depends on a wide range of factors including the type of product, the particular recipe, the potency, whether or not it is eaten on empty stomach, and so forth, as well as how your digestive system functions.

To reiterate what we discussed above, when taken on an empty stomach, CBD-infused candies will melt within minutes, delivering the entire dosage of CBD to the stomach. When taken with other food some of the CBD can work its way down further through your system.

Other products such as CBD-infused baked goods, which contain complex carbs and fiber, take longer to digest, and may carry more CBD into the intestines than CBD-infused candies.

Pros and Cons of Edibles

Edibles are highly portable. They’re great for packing for lunch or a trip or for hiking, sports, and so on. They also have the added benefit of being enjoyable to consume.

If you’re using CBD to treat stomach issues, CBD candies are a great choice. And if you’re trying to treat a condition of the intestines, something with some complex carbs and fiber is a better choice.

The downsides of edibles are their lower bioavailability and slower onset time. Although the bioavailability is lower than some other delivery methods, the amount delivered directly to the stomach might be higher than with a method that has to circulate through your entire body to get there.

Edibles are not a good choice if you want fast results. However, if you prefer edibles and want the fastest acting edibles, candies are your best bet since they dissolve quickly.

CBD-Infused Beverages

As with CBD-infused edibles, it is possible to make beverages with both pure CBD and a water-soluble preparation of CBD oil. There’s no special method to using these products. Drink up.

If they are made by a reputable manufacturer, you have to assume they contain the amount of CBD claimed on the label. If a beverage contains 10 milligrams of CBD and your plan is to take 20 milligrams per day, then drink two a day. It’s that simple.

Just keep in mind that, as with edibles, a CBD-infused beverage with a full-spectrum oil will contain cannabinoids and beneficial terpenes and provide the added benefits of the entourage effect.

Pros and Cons of Beverages

CBD-infused beverages can be an enjoyable way of getting your CBD. They have a faster onset time than CBD-infused baked goods.

On the downside, although they are convenient for home or office use, they’re a little heavier and bulkier than edibles and capsules and therefore aren’t as ideal for travelling and outdoor activities.

CBD-Infused Topicals

CBD-infused topicals include skin creams, balms, salves, and oils. Once again, these products can be infused with pure CBD, or they can contain a full-spectrum CBD oil. The same rule applies, the products with the full-spectrum oils will contain other beneficial cannabinoids and terpenes.

There are a number of reasons that people use topical preparations. These include skin care products such as moisturizers, products meant to treat skin conditions, balms used for muscle tension and pain relief, and salves which are formulated to reduce itching or burns.

Topicals often have a variety of additional beneficial ingredients meant to contribute to the overall therapeutic effects. For example, skin creams may contain moisturizers, vitamin E, collagen, and so on. Pain creams may contain ingredients meant to help the product penetrate deeper into tissues and aid in pain relief such as menthol. Salves may contain other soothing and healing ingredients such as aloe.

Topical products can also be very simple as well. In fact, CBD oil with no other ingredients can be used directly on the skin. CBD-rich oils are great for moisturizing. They provide antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties to protect skin from damage, they can act as an antibiotic, and they might improve circulation to a particular area. CBD oils often contain vitamins and minerals, amino acids, and so on which are produced naturally along with the oil.

Pros and Cons of Topicals

Topical are great for treating a particular area of skin or underlying muscles and joints. They deliver the CBD and other beneficial ingredients directly where they can do the most good.

However, they take some time to apply and can be a little messy. This may not be a concern for you if you use these kinds of products regularly.

Another thing to consider is that, when taken internally either orally, sublingually, or inhaled, CBD will make its way to all areas of your body including your skin. So if overall skin health is your goal, you may just opt for one of those other applications rather than having to apply a topical all over your skin.

Which brings up a side note. When receiving a massage, generally, an oil is used on the entire body. This is a great opportunity to give your skin some extra love by adding some full-spectrum CBD oil to your massage oil.

Inhalation Methods

Aside from being a preferred delivery method for treating inflammation of the lungs from conditions such as asthma, inhalation also has the fastest onset and highest bioavailability of any other method aside from intravenous injection.

There are two devices use to prepare CBD for inhalation — vaporizers and nebulizers. Vaporizers essentially heat a CBD oil preparation to a temperature where it evaporates into a gas. These are very popular and easy to find. Nebulizers simply convert a solution containing CBD into a mist or cloud and are less common at this time.

Pros and Cons of Inhalation

The faster onset time and higher bioavailability are obvious benefits of inhalation methods. This is especially true for treating conditions for which symptoms can appear suddenly such as PTSD, panic attacks, and asthma.

Nebulizers provide the added benefit of providing a measured dose, whereas delivering an exact dosage of CBD using a vaporizer is trickier. This is because most vaporizers — or vape pens, as they are commonly referred to — are not designed to vaporize an exact amount of solution. A lot depends on how big a puff a user takes and how deeply it is inhaled.

Another potential downside of vaporizers is that some ingredients are believed to be harmful when vaporized. For example, many vape oil solutions contain a petroleum-based chemical known as polyethylene glycol (PEG) — the same stuff that’s used as a coolant and antifreeze in car radiators. Although this product has been approved by the FDA for use in foods, some studies have suggested that vaporized PEG can be harmful to the lungs.

Transdermal CBD Patches

The term transdermal simply means “through the skin.” A transdermal patch is a device which contains a CBD-infused preparation. The patch adheres to the skin allowing the CBD to be absorbed into the bloodstream. A good example of transdermal delivery systems are the nicotine patches used by people to help them quit smoking cigarettes, and hormone supplement patches which are used to increase particular hormone levels.

The bioavailability and onset time of CBD patches can vary greatly depending on the carriers used to help penetrate the skin as well as the concentration of CBD in the product and the location on the body to which the patch is adhered.

However, the idea of a patch is not to provide fast relief. Rather, CBD patches are designed to provide a constant supply of CBD over an extended period of time.

Pros and Cons of Transdermal Patches

The main reason for using a CBD patch is to deliver an ongoing supply of CBD. Neither oral, inhaled, nor topical preparations offer this benefit. All of these methods provide the entire dose at once. The CBD is then delivered and metabolizes over time until none is left in the bloodstream, or another dose is consumed. This creates rises and falls in CBD levels.

A patch, on the other hand, will provide a steadier supply of CBD over time. When the preparation within the patch begins to run out, another patch can be applied, providing a constant supply of CBD to the bloodstream.

An upside of using patches is that they are simple and clean to use, they’re discreet, and they don’t require any particular equipment such as a vape pen or nebulizer.

A glaring downside to transdermal patches is that they cannot provide a full-spectrum of cannabinoids and terpenes. They can only be made with isolated cannabinoids. So, if you’re looking for the full-spectrum entourage effect, then patches are not a viable choice.

Chapter 5 – Getting Started With CBD Oil

How To Buy Potent, High-Quality CBD

The CBD market is currently expanding at breakneck pace. Unfortunately, along with the good companies, bad ones trying to capitalize on the trend. Many of them will do anything to cut corners and increase profit margins. Some companies will use inferior and unsafe product. And some are completely dishonest, selling so-called CBD oil products that have negligible amounts of CBD in them, or even none whatsoever. Or, even worse, they could contain dangerous synthetic CBD.

CBD oil is not a product on which you should skimp on quality. You need a trusted manufacturer that makes CBD oil products that are rich in natural CBD and terpenes.

Also, a recent survey of CBD products found that a full 40% of CBD products on the market do not contain the amount of CBD listed on the label.

With all these CBD oil producers flooding the market with new products, it becomes difficult to know who to trust and where to find the highest quality CBD oil.

Identifying a Good Company

There are a few factors that need to be considered when searching for a company that makes high-quality CBD oil products. These include the source and variety of hemp, the method of extraction used to produce the raw hemp extract, whether or not the company uses nanoemulsion technology, and the quality of the other ingredients in the products they offer such as other essential oils.

The good news is that a reputable company will gladly provide this information. If it’s not touted on their website, you can use their contact form to inquire about their hemp source, extraction method, and the source of other ingredients. If a company will not provide you with this information, simply rule them out. There are plenty of respectable, high-quality CBD oil makers out there.

Preferred Hemp Sources

Hemp is farmed all over the world. The US is only recently starting to rebuild its hemp industry after a century of prohibition. However, the U.S. produces some of the finest quality cannabis and hemp products in the world.

It’s important to understand that not all hemp is created equal. Industrial hemp is primarily grown for its seeds and fibers and is not bred to produce high levels of cannabinoids and terpenes. PCR hemp, on the other hand, was specifically cultivated to be rich in cannabinoids and terpenes.

In order for a CBD product which is made from industrial hemp to contain the same concentrations of cannabinoids and terpenes as CBD oil made from PCR hemp, industrial hemp CBD must be further refined removing or destroying many of the naturally occurring beneficial compounds.

If a manufacturer specifies that their CBD was extracted from industrial hemp, it’s safe to assume that the product is either lower in CBD and terpenes than a product made with PCR hemp, or has been further processed and has lost some of its natural essence. Finding a company whose products are made with PCR hemp (such as those produced by Joy Organics) is highly desirable.

The lowest quality CBD oil products are usually produced in Asian countries such as China where quality standards are far lower. CBD oil products produced in China are often made from strains of industrial hemp which are not rich in cannabinoids and terpenes. And they are often extracted using cheaper methods which are harsh and can actually destroy cannabinoids and terpenes. They may contain toxic pesticides which are illegal in the U.S., or may be contaminated with molds and other biological toxins.

Preferred Extraction Methods

A variety of methods are used to extract the essential oils from hemp. As can be expected, some are better than others. Some are less expensive and produce a lower quality product, and some are more costly but produce a higher quality product.

Methods which use chemical solvents such as ethanol or butane are cheaper, but can destroy cannabinoids and terpenes. Residual solvents may also be found in the end product.

Joy Organics products are produced using a proprietary ethanol-based extraction process. This process ensures the preservation of all beneficial phytocannabinoids and terpenes while eliminating unwanted compounds and preventing the degradation of natural molecules during extraction and purification.
While CBD by itself offers health benefits, research demonstrates that a full-spectrum CBD product which contains other naturally occurring cannabinoids and terpenes increases the health benefits of the product. This is called the Entourage Effect. Our full-spectrum, phytocannabinoid-rich hemp oil contains synergistic cannabinoids, such as CBD, CBDA, CBG, CBN, CBC, as well as a diverse terpene profile.
Another proprietary process is used to separate the plant solids from the oil. The oil is then ‘distilled’ to remove the food-grade ethanol. What remains is a high-quality, full-spectrum CBD oil.


Quality of Other Ingredients

Although raw and refined pure hemp extract is available, the vast majority of CBD oil products contain additional ingredients such as vegetable oils, or other essential oils.

All the rules mentioned above apply here. Products produced in the U.S. are preferred. Products produced in Western Europe may also be of high quality. And product made elsewhere are quite often of lower quality.

Which ingredients are used can also be telling when determining if a company is trying to cut corners. Oils such as hemp seed oil, coconut oil, almond oil, and others are generally healthy and of high quality. If a product contains ingredients you can’t pronounce or sound like chemicals, then the manufacturer is probably trying to cut corners.

For example, a product known as polyethylene glycol is often used in CBD vape oils. This is the same stuff found in your car’s radiator. Although it has been approved for consumption by the FDA, there is evidence that it may irritate the lungs.

One exception to the can’t-pronounce-chemical rule is an oil known as MCT oil. MCT stands for medium chain triglycerides. MCT oil is a natural product made from coconut oil. Coconut oil contains both medium- and long-chain triglycerides. Triglycerides, although this sounds like a type of chemical, are simply the main constituent of human body fat. Without going into a biology lesson, let it suffice to say that MCT’s are easier for the body to process than raw coconut oil.

There are other exceptions to the rule. When in doubt just do an internet search on the ingredients in question and you’ll usually be able to determine fairly quickly whether or not a particular ingredient is safe and healthy.

Quality Testing

Another factor to consider is third-party lab testing. Most serious manufactures will send their products out to testing labs to determine whether or not they contain any contaminants and also to measure the levels of cannabinoids in the product.

Because different strains and crops produce different levels of CBD, CBD oil can vary in potency from one batch to another. Any good manufacturers will want to know exactly how much CBD is in their products.

Another thing that’s extremely important to know is that the product contains zero THC or have THC levels that are so negligible, there might as well be none. Because THC is highly regulated, selling hemp-derived CBD oil which contains THC can mean the end of the line for a CBD company.

Many top manufacturers will provide the lab reports for the exact batch of products being sold. If one of the makers you are considering does offer this information, give them extra points.

Joy Organics products are produced using a technology which completely eliminates THC while retaining the full spectrum of CBD, other cannabinoids, and terpenes.

CBD Oil Health Claims

This is worth touching on. Many companies will put CBD products on the market and make health claims about their product. Because health claims are not allowed by the FDA until a product is thoroughly tested and approved, these claims are a sure sign of a company that does not know what it’s doing. Avoid them.

Finding a Trusted Manufacturer

Another way to narrow down your list of CBD oil makers is simply to do some internet research on CBD companies themselves. You’ll notice that some brand names will consistently be portrayed in a good light, while others might have an overabundance of bad reviews.

There are some smaller, more obscure companies which produce very high-quality CBD but may not have much in the way of reviews. Don’t necessarily rule them out. Use the methods above to determine if they will make the cut.

As we mentioned above, products produced in areas of the world other than the U.S. or Western Europe are usually of lower quality. There are plenty of great U.S. CBD oil producers to choose from, so it’s best to stick with U.S.-made products.

A Word On the Dangers of Synthetic Cannabinoids

You may have heard on the news about some people in Utah becoming seriously as a result of using CBD products which contained synthetic CBD — that is CBD produced in a lab instead of in a hemp plant. We can’t stress enough how dangerous these products are. Stay away from them at all costs. If you use the methods above to find a quality CBD oil maker, you should be fine.


To wrap things up, let’s summarize the important points that you should take away from this document.

Set Goals

It’s important to have some goals before you begin using CBD oil. For example, you may not be getting enough sleep, or you may be experiencing pain from athletics. Determine what effects you’re hoping to get from CBD oil so that you can make a decision as to whether or not it’s working for you.

Determine Your Dosage

If you’re taking CBD oil for health maintenance you should be taking lower doses of CBD. Anything over 50 milligrams a day may be more than you need. You may only need 25 milligrams or less per day.

If you’re trying to treat a particular ailment, on the other hand, you might need higher doses of CBD. Or you may be taking medications with which CBD will interact. And there may be other considerations. You really need to discuss your decision with a qualified medical professional who is well-versed in the use of CBD as a therapy for your particular condition in order to determine your ideal dosage.

Choose a Good Company and Stick With Them

Finding the right product for you from a high-quality maker is paramount. Once you choose a trusted brand and a particular product, stick with it for a while so that you can truly gauge its effectiveness.

We hope that you’ll take a good look at Joy Organics and consider us as your preferred source for high-quality CBD oil products. We use only CBD-rich PCR hemp to produce our CBD oil. We use only full-spectrum oils in our products extracted using gentle CO2 extraction. Our tinctures, capsules, and topicals are made using patented nanoemulsion technology which gives our products a higher bioavailability than that of standard products. We use another patented process to remove all residual THC from our products providing a 100% THC-free product. And we add only the highest quality ingredients to our products. Finally, all of our products undergo rigorous testing to assure they are free from any kind of contamination and have accurate CBD levels.

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